Pine, Slash | Pinus elliottii

Slash pine is a softwood used in general construction, flooring, and for outdoor purposes such as decking, pergolas and playground equipment.

Other Names: Florida Pine, Yellow Pine, Southern Florida Pine, Pinus densa, Elliottii

Overview

Slash pine is a softwood native to south eastern United States and grown widely in plantations in northern NSW and in Queensland. It is mostly available in those states. It is used for general construction purposes, flooring, panelling and plywood; when treated with preservatives it is used for outdoor uses such as cladding and decking, fascia and barge boards; and for pergolas, fencing, retaining walls, landscaping, and playground equipment.

The heartwood of slash pine is pale reddish brown, while the sapwood is pale yellow and not clearly marked from the heartwood. The texture is relatively coarse and non-uniform, with alternating bands of late and earlywood. The grain is straight; the growth rings are prominent and the resin flows are very abundant. Knots are present in construction grade timber.

There is a distinctive difference in colour between earlywood and latewood, which results in a notable figure when back sawn. There are many resin canals, prominent as lines on dressed longitudinal surfaces, and the timber has a strong resinous odour. The resin can cause problems when working with the timber.

Slash pine is of low durability, with a life expectancy of less than seven years above ground and five below ground and it is resistant to termites. Only the sapwood can be treated with preservatives.

Properties

Shrinkage

Very Low Low Medium High Very High
Tangential:          
4.2
Radial: 2 - 3
Unit Movement: 0.3 %

Strength Group

Very High High Reasonably High Medium High Medium Reasonably Low Low Very Low
Unseasoned:S1S2S3S4S5S6S7
Seasoned:SD1SD2SD3SD4SD5SD6SD7SD8

Stress Grade

Structural
No. 1
Structural
No. 2
Structural
No. 3
Structural
No. 4
Structural
No. 5
Unseasoned: F11 F8 F7 F5 F4
Seasoned: F17 F14 F11 F8 F7

Density per Standard

Unseasoned: 1000 kg/m3
Seasoned: 650 kg/m3

Joint Group

Very High High Reasonably High Medium Low Very Low
Unseasoned:J1J2J3J4J5J6
Seasoned:JD1JD2JD3JD4JD5JD6

Colour

  White, yellow, pale straw to light brown Pink to pink brown Light to dark red Brown, chocolate, mottled or streaky
   

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of Rupture - Unseasoned: 42
Modulus of Rupture - Seasoned: 85
Modulus of Elasticity - Unseasoned: 7.0
Modulus of Elasticity - Seasoned: 9.7
Maximum Crushing Strength - Unseasoned: 22
Maximum Crushing Strength - Seasoned: 41
Impact - Unseasoned: 8.0
Impact - Seasoned: 5.6
Toughness - Unseasoned: Low - up to 15 Nm
Toughness - Seasoned: Low - up to 15 Nm
Hardness - Unseasoned: 2.1
Hardness - Seasoned: 3.4

Durability

Low Moderate Reasonably High High
(0 - 5 yrs) (5 - 15 yrs) (15 - 25 yrs) (more than 25 yrs)
In-Ground:
(0 - 7 yrs) (7 - 15 yrs) (15 - 40 yrs) (More than 40 yrs)
Above ground:
(0 - 20 yrs, usually < 5) (21 - 40 yrs) (41 - 64 yrs) (More than 60 yrs)
Marine Borer Resistance:
Lyctid Borer Susceptibility: Not Susceptible
Lyctid Borer Susceptibility - Other: Like all softwoods, Slash Pine is not susceptible to lyctid borer.
Termite Resistance: Resistant

Fire Properties

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
EFH Ignitibility:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
EFH Spread-of-Flame Index:
EFH Smoke-Developed Index:
Critical Radiance Flux - Lower: For plywood ≥17mm >2.2 and <4.5 kW/m2
Critical Radiance Flux - Higher: For plywood ≥17mm >2.2 and <4.5 kW/m2
Smoke Development Rate: For plywood ≥17mm <750
1 - non-combustible 2 - reasonably non-combustible 3 - slightly combustible 4 - combustible
Fire Properties Group
Number:
Group Number - Other: 3 for plywood ≥6mm
Average Specific Extinction Area: <250
Bushfire Resistance: Not Tested

Description

Botanical Name: Pinus elliottii
Preferred Common Name: Pine, Slash
Other Names: Florida Pine, Yellow Pine, Southern Florida Pine, Pinus densa, Elliottii
Species Type: Softwood

Appearance

The texture of slash pine is relatively coarse and non-uniform, with alternating bands of late and earlywood. The grain is straight; the growth rings are prominent and the resin flows are very abundant. Knots are present in construction grade timber. The heartwood is pale reddish brown, while the sapwood is pale yellow and not clearly marked from the heartwood.

There is a distinctive difference in colour between earlywood and latewood, which results in a notable figure when back sawn. There are many resin canals, prominent as lines on dressed longitudinal surfaces.

Common Applications

Slash pine  is used for general construction purposes, such as framing, flooring, lining, laminated beams, and joinery. When treated with preservatives it is used for external cladding and decking, and in fencing, pergolas, landscaping and playground equipment.

Common Form

Sawn

Workability

Only the sapwood of slash pine can be treated with preservatives. When dressing, sharp planer blades are needed to avoid compressing the softer earlywood and the ridged surfaces produced.
Because of deflection by latewood bands, nails tend to follow the growth rings and care is needed when using fittings and fastenings. Good results can be obtained with nail guns.

Due to the high resin content of some material and the ridge of early and latewood in dressed timber, care is required when timber is selected for finishing applications and when surfaces are prepared for painting and varnishing. Earlywood and latewood can absorb glue differently but this rarely causes problems.

Origin of Timber

NSW, QLD, WA, Oceania, North America

Origin of Timber - Other

Sash pine is native to the south-east United States of America from South Carolina to Florida and west to Louisiana.

Readily Available

NSW, QLD

Source of Timber

Plantation

Applications

  • Flooring

    Whether for structural or finished flooring applications, timber offers durability, versatility and adaptability. The warmth, strength and natural beauty of timber flooring has proved enduringly popular in a wide variety of interior settings.

  • Framing

    Since people began building simple shelters, wooden framing has played an important role in shaping structures of many kinds. One of the most popular types of wooden framing is known as lightweight timber construction.

  • Structural Timber Poles

    Timber poles are utilised in structural construction to provide support for gravity loads and resistance against lateral forces. Not only serving a structural function, timber poles provide many aesthetic benefits, with their use in construction often complementing architectural designs aimed at harmonisation with the natural environment.

  • Timber Portal Frames

    For buildings that require large spans and column free interiors, timber portal frames provide one of the most aesthetically pleasing solutions. Utilising modern engineering technology, portal frame design transforms timber into a highly effective, efficient and economical structural product. This application guide provides a comprehensive overview of the process of using timber in the specification, fabrication and erection of portal frame structures.

Case Studies

Suppliers

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