Macrocarpa

Sapwood colour: pale yellow-brown and little different from the yellow-brown heartwood although wood from old trees tends to be darker.   

Grain and texture: grain generally straight but can deviate considerably from stem fluting or around knots from large branches of trees grown in open grown shelter belts or plantations.  The texture is fine and even with visible growth rings.  Tissue gives the wood a lustrous appearance similar to that of hoop or kauri.   The heartwood exhibits a fragrant spicy odour or ‘pencils’ similar to that of western red cedar. 

The species is originally from the United States of America; in Australia it was commonly used for windbreaks on Victorian farms, where it was planted around 70 to 100 years ago. Now it is increasingly available commercially.  Several small sawmilling operations in Victoria are processing the farm-sourced timber.  The tree was also introduced to New Zealand in the 1860’s, tropical Africa and Madagascar and was planted mainly in shelter belts but occasionally in plantations in New Zealand. 

The wood is a lightweight softwood (475-485 kg/m3 at 12% MC) and is a moderately stiff, strong timber similar to NZ grown Douglas Fir, it can be difficult to kiln dry, usually exhibiting collapse and sometimes internal checking. 

The wood saws and works easily owing to its fine texture.  It holds nails well and the gluing and painting properties are good.   It is one of the most naturally durable exotic softwoods grown in New Zealand, and is resistant to insect and borer attack in sawn form.  The heartwood is rated moderately durable (Class 3) in ground which means that a 50x50 stake will last 10-15 years. Larger sections will last longer.  Above ground it is regarded as equivalent to H3 pine. It is reportedly, naturally, termite-resistant (http://www.jedwoodtimber.com.au/cypress.html) although no published test data is available.

Appearance

Sapwood colour pale yellow-brown and little different from the yellow-brown heartwood although wood from old trees tends to be darker.   Grain and texture: grain generally straight but can deviate considerably from stem fluting or around knots from large branches of trees grown in open grown shelter belts or.  The texture is fine and even with visible growth rings.  Ray tissue gives the wood a lustrous appearance similar to that of hoop or kauri.   The heartwood exhibits a fragrant spicy odour or ‘pencils’ similar to that of western red cedar. 

Common Applications

Weatherboards, pergolas, landscaping, exposed rafters and beams (internal), shingles, tongue and grove panelling, flooring overlays, feature gates and fencing, slabs for kitchens and bar tops, shop fittings signs, tables, (use for furniture is comparable to radiata pine although the long term performance is adversely affected by the low hardness (c. 65% that of pine)), boat building, cabinet making, wood turning and carving, fence battens, stairways and balustrades, laminating, picture framing and joinery and firewood.

Common Form

Sawn

Workability

The wood saws, planes and works easily owing to its fine texture.  It holds nails well; the gluing and painting properties are good.   Bending properties are reportedly very poor.

Origin of Timber

VIC

Readily Available

VIC

Availability - Further Information

This originally exotic species commonly used for windbreaks on Victorian farms is becoming increasingly available commercially. Several small sawmilling operations in Victoria include e.g., (http://goldencypress.com.au/) and (http://www.jedwoodtimber.com.au/cypress.html). Elsewhere processing farm-sourced and plantation grown timber includes, e.g., (http://www.cypress-sawmill.co.nz/)

Availability - Further Information

Plantation

Shrinkage

Very Low Low Medium High Very High

Tangential :

3.30%

Radial:

1.60%

Unit Movement Tangential:

0.25%

Unit Movement Radial:

0.12%

Strength Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium High

Medium

Reasonably Low

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

Seasoned:

SD1

SD2

SD3

SD4

SD5

SD6

SD7

SD8

Stress Grade

Structural
No. 1
Structural
No. 2
Structural
No. 3
Structural
No. 4
Structural
No. 5

Unseasoned:

Seasoned:

Density per Standard

Seasoned:

480kg/m3

Unseasoned:

820kg/m3

Joint Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

Seasoned:

JD1

JD2

JD3

JD4

JD5

JD6

Colour

  White, yellow, pale straw to light brown Pink to pink brown Light to dark red Brown, chocolate, mottled or streaky
   

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of Rupture - Unseasoned:

53

Modulus of Rupture - Seasoned:

74.3

Modulus of Elasticity - Unseasoned:

7.1

Modulus of Elasticity - Seasoned:

7.9

Maximum Crushing Strength - Unseasoned:

23

Maximum Crushing Strength - Seasoned:

40.3

Impact - Unseasoned:

Impact - Seasoned:

Toughness - Unseasoned:

Toughness - Seasoned:

Hardness - Unseasoned:

1.9

Hardness - Seasoned:

2.5

Durability

Low Moderate Reasonably High High
(0 - 5 yrs) (5 - 15 yrs) (15 - 25 yrs) (more than 25 yrs)

In-Ground:

(0 - 7 yrs) (7 - 15 yrs) (15 - 40 yrs) (More than 40 yrs)

Above ground:

(0 - 20 yrs, usually < 5) (21 - 40 yrs) (41 - 64 yrs) (More than 60 yrs)

Marine Borer Resistance:

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility:

Not Susceptible

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility - Other:

Termite Resistance:

Resistant

Fire Properties

Joinery

Timber joinery products offer a classic, unique and stylish touch to any interior or exterior design. The products are produced for a variety of internal applications including door and window frames, cabinetry, skirtings, mouldings and architraves. When looking to the outdoors, joinery products range from decorative eaves and posts to eye-catching railings.

Many timber species are suitable for joinery products and care should be taken in selecting the perfect timber for the particular product and its intended finish. Rare and exotic species such as Teak and Rosewood can generate pieces of outstanding beauty but material cost and availability are also important considerations.

Commercially available species like Tasmanian oak, Australian cypress, spotted gum and the like, often make the more practical choice, with the added benefit that they can be easily matched with other timber products within the building, like flooring.

Solid timber for joinery products is generally supplied as ‘clear finish grade' but ‘paint grade' options are available and these are usually comprised of a composite material like MDF or glulam.

A large number of specialist suppliers and producers offer the consumer extensive choice of profiles for all of the most common and popular joinery products. Choice is in many cases, limited only by imagination.

Cabinetry is often associated with joinery and most typically includes, cupboards, benches and other similar ‘built in' furniture. Like joinery, cabinetry is generally specified as either paint or clear finish grade and naturally for clear finish grade timbers, appearance and surface finish are critical in achieving a successful application.

 

Panelling, Interior

Internal panelling, also known as appearance boards and linings, is not just a practical means of covering one or more walls and ceilings in a building, its inclusion in a room's interior design can generate looks that are both dramatic and stylish. Internal paneling comes as either solid natural timber paneling or as sheets of engineered wood products that provide a durable and hardwearing surface for areas subject to high impact. As they typically function as appearance products they generally have no structural requirements. This guide describes the variety of panelling products available and outlines the straightforward process of installing them.

Cladding, External

No other cladding material can offer the design freedom, ease of handling, range and natural beauty of timber. Timber cladding can create a building to suit almost any environment, taste or style.

Timber cladding has an inbuilt flexibility that provides natural advantages on sites subject to high winds, extreme climate, highly reactive soils, subsidence or earth tremors. And unlike masonry and other rigid materials, the natural resilience and high strength to weight ratio of timber enables it to withstand far greater stresses and movement.

Modern finishes give a long lasting and attractive appearance to timber cladding and can be used to change the colour and style of the building, making it a versatile material that will keep pace with changing tastes and fashions.

 

Windows

Timber windows are usually supplied as joinery items with a primer or base coat, as factory glazed components requiring site finishing or as fully glazed and finished windows.

Demand is ever increasing for high performance windows that promote efficient energy use in buildings. Careful window selection and placement is rightly viewed as a means of reducing demand for artificial light and climate control. Timber is an ideal material when considering these aspects as it is a material that is light, strong, natural and renewable. It can be moulded to any shape, so will meet the thermal, acoustic and design requirements of even the most unusual window.

This guide discusses the common elements involved in specifying, constructing and installing timber windows

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