Walnut, Yellow

Yellow walnut is an Australian native hardwood timber species. Very limited quantities are still used for a variety of decorative and construction purposes.

Other Names

Canary Ash, Yellow Nut

Botanical Name

Beilschmiedia bancroftii

Common Form
Sawn
Species Type

Yellow walnut is a well-shaped, medium-sized tree, attaining a maximum height of 25 to 30 metres. It occurs in North Queensland rainforests around the Johnstone and Russell Rivers, Evelyn and Daintree Rivers, Bellenden Ker Range and the Atherton Tableland. Commercial availability of yellow walnut timber is currently very limited, due to enforced conservation of the rainforests in which it typically occurs. 

The heartwood of this species is pale to bright lemon yellow in colour. Sapwood is typically paler but often difficult to distinguish from the true wood, since it can occupy up to 50% of the stem radius. Grain is straight and moderately coarse, with little or no figure - although back-sawn surfaces may occasionally show figure due to earlywood/latewood ring formation.

In terms of durability, yellow walnut is a class 4 hardwood, with a maximum life expectancy of between five and seven years (aboveground and in-ground application, respectively). The sapwood (but not heartwood) of this species is readily impregnated with preservatives using commercially available procedures. Untreated sapwood is susceptible to borer attack. Yellow walnut is not resistant to termites.

Common applications of yellow walnut range from light construction (as sawn timber in general house framing, flooring, linings and mouldings) to a variety of decorative uses (plywood, furniture, joinery, turnery, carving and paneling).

Shrinkage

Very Low Low Medium High Very High

Tangential :

3.80%

Radial :

2.10%

Unit Movement Tangential:

0.27%

Unit Movement Radial:

0.17%

Strength Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium High

Medium

Reasonably Low

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

Seasoned:

SD1

SD2

SD3

SD4

SD5

SD6

SD7

SD8

Stress Grade

Structural
No. 1
Structural
No. 2
Structural
No. 3
Structural
No. 4
Structural
No. 5

Unseasoned:

F14

F11

F8

F7

F5

Seasoned:

F17

F14

F11

F8

F7

Density per Standard

Seasoned:

585kg/m3

Unseasoned:

770kg/m3

Joint Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

Seasoned:

JD1

JD2

JD3

JD4

JD5

JD6

Colour

  White, yellow, pale straw to light brown Pink to pink brown Light to dark red Brown, chocolate, mottled or streaky
   

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of Rupture - Unseasoned:

Modulus of Rupture - Seasoned:

Modulus of Elasticity - Unseasoned:

Modulus of Elasticity - Seasoned:

Maximum Crushing Strength - Unseasoned:

Maximum Crushing Strength - Seasoned:

Impact - Unseasoned:

Impact - Seasoned:

Toughness - Unseasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Toughness - Seasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Hardness - Unseasoned:

3.2

Hardness - Seasoned:

4.8

Durability

Low Moderate Reasonably High High
(0 - 5 yrs) (5 - 15 yrs) (15 - 25 yrs) (more than 25 yrs)

In-Ground:

(0 - 7 yrs) (7 - 15 yrs) (15 - 40 yrs) (More than 40 yrs)

Above ground:

(0 - 20 yrs, usually < 5) (21 - 40 yrs) (41 - 64 yrs) (More than 60 yrs)

Marine Borer Resistance:

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility:

Susceptible

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility - Other:

Termite Resistance:

Not Resistant

Fire Properties

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

EFH Ignitibility:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

EFH Spread-of-Flame Index:

EFH Smoke-Developed Index:

1 - non-combustible 2 - reasonably non-combustible 3 - slightly combustible 4 - combustible

Fire Properties Group
Number:

Group Number - Other:

3 if used on MDF or particleboard ≥12mm; veneer thickness 0.6-0.85mm

Average Specific Extinction Area:

<250

Bushfire Resistance:

BAL 12.5 and 19 – Door and window joinery only
Appearance

The heartwood of yellow walnut is pale to bright lemon yellow in colour. Sapwood is generally paler but often difficult to distinguish from the heartwood, especially since it can occupy up to 50% of the stem radius. Grain is straight and moderately coarse with little or no figure - although back-sawn surfaces may occasionally show figure due to earlywood/latewood cell formation into rings.

Common Applications

Common applications of yellow walnut range from decorative (plywood, furniture, joinery, turnery, carving and panelling) to light construction (as sawn timber in general house framing, flooring, linings and mouldings).

Workability

The hardness of yellow walnut is rated as firm (4 on a 6-class scale) in relation to indentation and ease of working with hand tools. Due to its high silica content, the timber can be abrasive to machine cutters and tools. No difficulty has been experienced with the use of standard fittings and fastenings. Yellow walnut can be bonded satisfactorily using standard glues and procedures. It will readily accept stain, polish and paint.

Origin of timber
QLD
Readily Available
QLD
Although relatively common in Queensland, commercial availability of yellow walnut timber is now very limited.
Source of timber
Native Forest
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Joinery

Timber joinery offers a classic, stylish touch to any interior or exterior space.
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Panelling, Interior

Timber panelling creates interiors as warm as they are stylish. Commonly using an MDF or plywood substrate, internal timber paneling is natural and versatile and comes as either solid natural timber panels or as sheets of engineered wood products
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Mouldings

Mouldings are extremely versatile and durable, enhancing the aesthetics of any interior and functioning as the icing on the cake for designs with a focus on beauty and splendour.
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Flooring

The warmth, strength and natural beauty of timber flooring is enduringly popular in a wide variety of domestic, commercial and industrial applications.

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