Pine, Slash

Slash pine is a softwood used in general construction, flooring, and for outdoor purposes such as decking, pergolas and playground equipment.

Other Names

Florida Pine, Yellow Pine, Southern Florida Pine, Pinus densa, Elliottii

Botanical Name

Pinus elliottii

Common Form
Sawn
Species Type

Slash pine is a softwood native to south eastern United States and grown widely in plantations in northern NSW and in Queensland. It is mostly available in those states. It is used for general construction purposes, flooring, panelling and plywood; when treated with preservatives it is used for outdoor uses such as cladding and decking, fascia and barge boards; and for pergolas, fencing, retaining walls, landscaping, and playground equipment.

The heartwood of slash pine is pale reddish brown, while the sapwood is pale yellow and not clearly marked from the heartwood. The texture is relatively coarse and non-uniform, with alternating bands of late and earlywood. The grain is straight; the growth rings are prominent and the resin flows are very abundant. Knots are present in construction grade timber.

There is a distinctive difference in colour between earlywood and latewood, which results in a notable figure when back sawn. There are many resin canals, prominent as lines on dressed longitudinal surfaces, and the timber has a strong resinous odour. The resin can cause problems when working with the timber.

Slash pine is of low durability, with a life expectancy of less than seven years above ground and five below ground and it is resistant to termites. Only the sapwood can be treated with preservatives.

Shrinkage

Very Low Low Medium High Very High

Tangential :

4.20%

Radial :

3.00%

Unit Movement Tangential:

0.29%

Unit Movement Radial:

0.20%

Strength Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium High

Medium

Reasonably Low

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

S8

Seasoned:

SD1

SD2

SD3

SD4

SD5

SD6

SD7

SD8

Stress Grade

Structural
No. 1
Structural
No. 2
Structural
No. 3
Structural
No. 4
Structural
No. 5

Unseasoned:

F11

F8

F7

F5

F4

Seasoned:

F17

F14

F11

F8

F7

Density per Standard

Seasoned:

650kg/m3

Unseasoned:

850kg/m3

Joint Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

Seasoned:

JD1

JD2

JD3

JD4

JD5

JD6

Colour

  White, yellow, pale straw to light brown Pink to pink brown Light to dark red Brown, chocolate, mottled or streaky
   

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of Rupture - Unseasoned:

44

Modulus of Rupture - Seasoned:

75

Modulus of Elasticity - Unseasoned:

8

Modulus of Elasticity - Seasoned:

9.5

Maximum Crushing Strength - Unseasoned:

21

Maximum Crushing Strength - Seasoned:

42

Impact - Unseasoned:

8.0

Impact - Seasoned:

5.8

Toughness - Unseasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Toughness - Seasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Hardness - Unseasoned:

2.2

Hardness - Seasoned:

3.4

Durability

Low Moderate Reasonably High High
(0 - 5 yrs) (5 - 15 yrs) (15 - 25 yrs) (more than 25 yrs)

In-Ground:

(0 - 7 yrs) (7 - 15 yrs) (15 - 40 yrs) (More than 40 yrs)

Above ground:

(0 - 20 yrs, usually < 5) (21 - 40 yrs) (41 - 64 yrs) (More than 60 yrs)

Marine Borer Resistance:

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility:

Not Susceptible

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility - Other:

Termite Resistance:

Resistant

Fire Properties

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

EFH Spread-of-Flame Index:

EFH Smoke-Developed Index:

Critical Radiance Flux - Lower:

For plywood ≥17mm >2.2 and <4.5

Critical Radiance Flux - Higher:

For plywood ≥17mm >2.2 and <4.5

Smoke Development Rate:

For plywood ≥17mm <750
1 - non-combustible 2 - reasonably non-combustible 3 - slightly combustible 4 - combustible

Fire Properties Group
Number:

Group Number - Other:

3 for plywood ≥6mm

Average Specific Extinction Area:

<250

Bushfire Resistance:

Not Tested
Appearance

The texture of slash pine is relatively coarse and non-uniform, with alternating bands of late and earlywood. The grain is straight; the growth rings are prominent and the resin flows are very abundant. Knots are present in construction grade timber. The heartwood is pale reddish brown, while the sapwood is pale yellow and not clearly marked from the heartwood.

There is a distinctive difference in colour between earlywood and latewood, which results in a notable figure when back sawn. There are many resin canals, prominent as lines on dressed longitudinal surfaces.

Common Applications

Slash pine  is used for general construction purposes, such as framing, flooring, lining, laminated beams, and joinery. When treated with preservatives it is used for external cladding and decking, and in fencing, pergolas, landscaping and playground equipment.

Workability

Only the sapwood of slash pine can be treated with preservatives. When dressing, sharp planer blades are needed to avoid compressing the softer earlywood and the ridged surfaces produced.
Because of deflection by latewood bands, nails tend to follow the growth rings and care is needed when using fittings and fastenings. Good results can be obtained with nail guns.

Due to the high resin content of some material and the ridge of early and latewood in dressed timber, care is required when timber is selected for finishing applications and when surfaces are prepared for painting and varnishing. Earlywood and latewood can absorb glue differently but this rarely causes problems.

Origin of timber
NSW
Sash pine is native to the south-east United States of America from South Carolina to Florida and west to Louisiana.
Readily Available
NSW
Source of timber
Plantation
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