Species of timber are classified into joint groups according to their mechanical properties. There are six joint groups for unseasoned timber (J1, the strongest to J6, the weakest) and six joint groups for seasoned timber (JD1 to JD6).
One of a series of timber beams used to support the floor boards or ceiling of a building.
The cut made by a saw blade.
Making a series of parallel saw cuts part way through the thickness of a piece of timber so that the piece can be curved towards the kerfed side.
A chamber used for seasoning timber in which the temperature and humidity of the circulating air can be controlled.
Dried artificially in a kiln.
A diagonal corner brace fastened between a column and a beam or truss to provide lateral restraint.
That portion of a branch or limb that has been surrounded by subsequent growth of the stem. The shape of the knot as it appears on a cut surface depends on the angle of the cut relative to the long axis of the knot.
Labeling is a term used to describe the use of a label or certification mark that indicates that the timber product has been produced from a certified forest and the chain of custody verified. Labeling in this way relates only to the how the timber has been grown and manufactured, not the quality of the product or its fitness for purpose.
A built up product made of layers or laminations of wood, all with the grain laid parallel and glued or otherwise fastened together. Laminating timber allows large and structurally reliable sections to be built up from small, high quality pieces
Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL)
A structural lumber manufactured from veneers laminated into a panel with the grain of all the veneers running parallel to each other. More on LVL
A joint made by placing one member partly over another and bonding the overlapped portions
Energy required to vaporise liquid water without increasing its temperature.
A force applied horizontally to a structure in any direction, such as a force caused by wind or earthquake action
Movement in a structure that is perpendicular to the major axis of loading, i.e. usually horizontal movement
The denser wood formed during the later stages of growth of each annual ring. Also called "summerwood".
Life Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Assessment is a process to: evaluate the environmental burdens associated with a product, process, or activity by identifying and quantifying energy and materials used and wastes released to the environment, assess the impact of those energy and materials used and releases to the environment; and identify and evaluate opportunities to affect environmental improvements. The assessment includes the entire life cycle of the product, process or activity, encompassing, extracting and processing raw materials; manufacturing, transportation and distribution; use, re-use, maintenance; recycling, and final disposal.
Life Cycle Energy
The total energy consumed by a building during its life-cycle (including manufacture of materials, construction, in-use, renovation, and demolition) derived from non-renewable resources. It includes the embodied energy of the building components. Life-cycle energy is usually expressed in terms of source energy that is, the energy content of the primary fuel before generation, distribution and other losses.
A horizontal element below a window that reflects direct sunlight up onto a ceiling surface
The covering of internal walls and ceilings of a building. Timber linings include sawn and profiled solid timber, plywood, medium density fibre and other materials.
The total variable weight on a structure. It includes the weights of people, furnishings, snow, wind and earthquake.
Generally parallel to the direction of the wood fibres.
The fabrication of timber elements off site so that they are finished but not connected together until on site just prior to installation
Light organic solvent preservative. a wood preservative
A North American synonym for timber.
In wood anatomy, the cell cavity.
A wood borer, sometimes known as the powder post borer, that can attack some hardwoods.
Timber is classified according to its susceptibility to attack by lyctid borer. Legislation governs the sale and use of lyctid susceptible timber in NSW and Queensland; Australian Standards limit the use of lyctid susceptible sapwood throughout Australia.
Mechanically Laminated Timber
Laminated timber where the laminations are joined with mechanical fasteners.
Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF)
A panel product manufactured from ligno-cellulosic fibres combined with a synthetic resin or other suitable binder. More on MDF
A fungal growth that does not cause deep discoloration of the wood. Associated with mould, it usually appears as tiny black spots that cover the timber surface.
A building or site that accommodates a manufacturing process
The weight of moisture contained in a piece of timber expressed as a percentage of the oven dry weight.
Moisture Content Class
Classification of timber by moisture content. Green, Green off Saw -Freshly sawn timber or timber that has received essentially no formal drying. 1) Air Dried - Timber that has been air or shed dried to an average of 25% moisture content or lower, with no material having more than 30% moisture content. 2) Predried - Timber that has been air dried or dried in a predryer to FSP. 3) Kiln Dried - Timber dried in a kiln or by some other refined method, to an average specified moisture content, typically 8% to 14%, or to a moisture content understood to be suitable for a certain application.
A progressive decrease (or increase) in moisture content between the core and the surface of a piece of wood.
Moisture Meter – Electric resistance
A meter that measures the electrical resistance of timber, which is converted to a reading of timber moisture content. They are usually calibrated for Douglas Fir. The reading must then be corrected for temperature and species.
Moisture Meter- Capacitance Moisture
A meter that measures the varying capacitance of wood with changing moisture content using a radio frequency oscillator. They measure the amount of water per unit volume in the wood.
The transfer of moisture from one point to another within wood or other materials.
An environment that has a single species of animal or plant dominant, usually associated with the artificial environments created by intensive agriculture
Mortice And Tenon Joint
A joint where a hole or slot known as a mortice (a) is formed in a piece of timber to receive the reduced end of similar size or tenon (b) from another piece. The joint is often secured with wedges, dowels or steel plates.
A fungal growth on timber or other wood products at or near the surface and, therefore, not typically resulting in deep discoloration. Mould is usually ash green to deep green, although black and yellow are also common. See also Mildew.
The extent of expansion and contraction which occurs with dried wood as its moisture content responds to changes in relative humidity in service.
Multi Residential Timber Framed Construction - a system of fire rated timber framed construction used in multistorey residential building
Nail Laminated Timber
A built up product made of layers of laminations of wood, all with the grain laid parallel and nailed together.
Nail Plate Connector
Sheet metal plates stamped so that nails are formed on one side and pressed into timber to make a joint.
Nail Plate Truss
A truss where the node joints are joined with nail plates
A generally rectangular pattern of nails used to join timber elements.
A short horizontal timber strut fixed between studs or joists in framed construction to provide lateral stiffening and intermediate fixing points for cladding or lining
The rounded front edge of a stair tread that extends over the riser.