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Pine, Hoop

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Hoop pine is a Queensland timber whose ease of use has made it popular for general construction purposes, flooring, joinery, shelving and cupboards, furniture, and plywood. When treated with preservatives it is suitable for outdoor uses such as fencing, pergolas, landscaping, retaining walls, and playground equipment. It is also used for a variety of non-architectural and non-building purposes, such as the manufacture of musical instruments, drafting instruments and brushware.
The heartwood ranges from pale cream to light yellow brown with little difference between heartwood and sapwood, though the heartwood is a little darker. It is a very fine and evenly textured wood with a straight grain. The growth rings are visible but not distinct and the figure is plain or mottled. 
The sapwood of hoop pine is easily treatable with preservatives, but the heartwood is not. It is resistant to lyctid borer attack, but not to termites. It is of low durability, with the heartwood having a life expectancy of less than seven years above ground and five below. 
Hoop pine machines and turns well, but is not suitable for steam bending. It can be polished, painted and stained with ease, and works well with fittings and fastenings.

Appearance

Hoop pine is a straight grained wood, evenly textured and very fine. The growth rings are not distinct, but they are visible, and the figure is mottled and plain. The heartwood ranges from light yellow brown to pale cream, and although there is little difference in colour between the heartwood and the sapwood, the heartwood is a little darker. Sapwood 7.5 - 15mm wide is often flecked and light brown in colour.

Common Applications

When treated with preservatives hoop pine is suitable for outdoor uses such as fencing, pergolas, landscaping, retaining walls, and playground equipment. The timber is also used for general construction purposes, flooring, joinery, shelving and cupboards, furniture, and as plywood. Hoop pine is also popular for a variety of non-architectural and non-building purposes, such as the manufacture of musical instruments, drafting instruments and brushware.

Common Form

Sawn

Workability

Hoop pine glues well and can be painted, stained and polished easily. It machines and turns well, but is not suitable for steam bending. It can be used with standard fittings and fastenings.

Origin of Timber

QLD

Readily Available

QLD

Availability - Further Information

Sawn hoop pine is mostly available in Queensland, veneers are more widely available.

Availability - Further Information

Plantation

Shrinkage

Very Low Low Medium High Very High

Tangential :

3.60%

Radial:

2.50%

Unit Movement Tangential:

0.23%

Unit Movement Radial:

0.18%

Strength Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium High

Medium

Reasonably Low

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

Seasoned:

SD1

SD2

SD3

SD4

SD5

SD6

SD7

SD8

Stress Grade

Structural
No. 1
Structural
No. 2
Structural
No. 3
Structural
No. 4
Structural
No. 5

Unseasoned:

F8

F7

F5

F4

Seasoned:

F17

F14

F11

F8

F7

Density per Standard

Seasoned:

530kg/m3

Unseasoned:

800kg/m3

Joint Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

Seasoned:

JD1

JD2

JD3

JD4

JD5

JD6

Colour

  White, yellow, pale straw to light brown Pink to pink brown Light to dark red Brown, chocolate, mottled or streaky
   

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of Rupture - Unseasoned:

48

Modulus of Rupture - Seasoned:

90

Modulus of Elasticity - Unseasoned:

10

Modulus of Elasticity - Seasoned:

13

Maximum Crushing Strength - Unseasoned:

26

Maximum Crushing Strength - Seasoned:

49

Impact - Unseasoned:

9.3

Impact - Seasoned:

5.7

Toughness - Unseasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Toughness - Seasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Hardness - Unseasoned:

2.7

Hardness - Seasoned:

3.4

Durability

Low Moderate Reasonably High High
(0 - 5 yrs) (5 - 15 yrs) (15 - 25 yrs) (more than 25 yrs)

In-Ground:

(0 - 7 yrs) (7 - 15 yrs) (15 - 40 yrs) (More than 40 yrs)

Above ground:

(0 - 20 yrs, usually < 5) (21 - 40 yrs) (41 - 64 yrs) (More than 60 yrs)

Marine Borer Resistance:

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility:

Not Susceptible

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility - Other:

Termite Resistance:

Not Resistant

Fire Properties

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

EFH Ignitibility:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

EFH Spread-of-Flame Index:

EFH Smoke-Developed Index:

Critical Radiance Flux - Lower:

For plywood ≥15mm >2.2 and <4.5

Critical Radiance Flux - Higher:

For plywood ≥15mm >2.2 and <4.5

Smoke Development Rate:

For plywood ≥15mm rate is <750
1 - non-combustible 2 - reasonably non-combustible 3 - slightly combustible 4 - combustible

Fire Properties Group
Number:

Group Number - Other:

For plywood, Group Number: 3 For ply ≥6mm, EFH Spread-of-Flame Index: 9, EFH Smoke-Developed Index: 3

Average Specific Extinction Area:

<250

Bushfire Resistance:

Not Tested

Joinery

Timber joinery products offer a classic, unique and stylish touch to any interior or exterior design. The products are produced for a variety of internal applications including door and window frames, cabinetry, skirtings, mouldings and architraves. When looking to the outdoors, joinery products range from decorative eaves and posts to eye-catching railings.

Many timber species are suitable for joinery products and care should be taken in selecting the perfect timber for the particular product and its intended finish. Rare and exotic species such as Teak and Rosewood can generate pieces of outstanding beauty but material cost and availability are also important considerations.

Commercially available species like Tasmanian oak, Australian cypress, spotted gum and the like, often make the more practical choice, with the added benefit that they can be easily matched with other timber products within the building, like flooring.

Solid timber for joinery products is generally supplied as ‘clear finish grade' but ‘paint grade' options are available and these are usually comprised of a composite material like MDF or glulam.

A large number of specialist suppliers and producers offer the consumer extensive choice of profiles for all of the most common and popular joinery products. Choice is in many cases, limited only by imagination.

Cabinetry is often associated with joinery and most typically includes, cupboards, benches and other similar ‘built in' furniture. Like joinery, cabinetry is generally specified as either paint or clear finish grade and naturally for clear finish grade timbers, appearance and surface finish are critical in achieving a successful application.

 

Fencing

The inherent appeal and strength of timber makes it the obvious choice for fencing. Timber fencing not only provides a natural look in keeping with the outdoor environment but it also enables the construction of a long lasting, durable property boundary. Fences come in many forms including the traditional paling, picket, post and railing styles. Most rely on a structural frame of posts embedded into the ground and two or more rails spanning between the posts. The ultimate selection of a suitable fence type or style is determined by application and aesthetics. A fence can serve a variety of purposes, including the provision of security, privacy and safety in addition to defining property boundaries. Specification for durability is important, especially for posts, given their exposure to high moisture in the ground.

This section provides an overview to best practice methods in specifying, installing and finishing a timber fence.

Mouldings

Timber mouldings add style, class and an elegant touch to any interior, offering a depth of beauty and warmth in a way only wood can. From period times to those more contemporary, timber mouldings have graced the most stylish and chic of interiors, decorating furniture, doors and windows. Decorative mouldings such as architraves, skirtings, cornices and ceiling roses remain an ever popular choice for designers seeking a finished result of beauty, style and quality. Like all timber products, mouldings are extremely versatile and durable, enhancing the aesthetics of any interior and functioning as the perfect finishing touch for designs with a focus on beauty and splendour.

Mouldings can be created from any commercially available species of timber and the moisture resistant wood product, MDF, is also a popular choice. When it comes to style and design, the sky is the limit with many suppliers offering custom matching to existing mouldings, as well as efficient supply of those that are individually designed. Installation is a breeze, with the majority of mouldings easily attached with a reputable wood adhesive. Finishes can be tailored by design requirements and the preferences of the end user, with mouldings commonly being both stained and/or painted.

Pergolas

Timber pergolas offer an attractive and economical way to create functional living and entertainment areas in the outdoors.  Pergolas designed with care can maximise both winter sunshine and summer shade, ensuring outdoor living is enjoyed all year round. With its natural look, durability and versatility there are few other materials that can match the advantages of timber in pergola construction.

Pergolas are typically constructed via a straightforward post and beam process, which can be attached to an existing building or form a free standing structure. A protective finishing coat will preserve the life of the pergola and a variety of paints and stains are available on the market to facilitate this.

 

Framing

Lightweight timber construction typically comprises framed and braced structures to which one or more types of cladding are applied. Framing configurations can range from the closely spaced light timbers commonly seen in stud frame construction to large, more widely spaced timbers. A timber framed building can be placed on a concrete slab or on posts/poles or bearers resting on piers/stumps supported on pad footings.

Used in houses or multi-residential dwellings, lightweight timber construction offers the flexibility of a wide range of cost effective design options.

When the timber comes from sustainable sources, this construction method can be environmentally advantageous as it combines timber's low embodied energy with its capacity to store carbon.

Flooring

Whether for structural or finished flooring applications, timber offers durability, versatility and adaptability. The warmth, strength and natural beauty of timber flooring has proved enduringly popular in a wide variety of interior settings.

Timber flooring is a timeless product, offering a warmth and natural beauty largely unmatched by other flooring options. This article provides an overview of the installation of solid timber strip flooring over bearers and joists, timber based sheet flooring products and concrete slabs. Timber flooring is typically supplied as either solid timber or laminated wood products, made from layers of bonded timber. It fits together with a tongue and groove joint and once in place, is sanded and finished. There is a wide variety of species to select flooring from and the right species for a given application will be dependent on numerous factors. Information relating to species selection, environmental assessment, finish selection and recommended maintenance routines are all provided in this section.

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