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Spruce, Pine-Fir

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Spruce-pine-fir, or SPF, is the generic name for a range of timbers originating from North America. The eight species marketed under this name are white spruce, black spruce, jack pine, balsam fir, lodgepole pine, Engelmann spruce, and red spruce. SPF can be used for boxes, crates, and general millwork, though in Australia it is only used for housing construction frames.

There is little difference between the heartwood and sapwood, both of which are a yellowish white. It is even-grained, medium to fine-textured, and produces a lustrous finish. It is without characteristic odour or taste.

SPF glues well, is easily worked, and holds paint and nails satisfactorily. It is hard to penetrate with preservatives and is not very durable.

Appearance

SPF is soft, straight, even-grained, medium to fine-textured, and produces a lustrous finish. The heartwood is a pale yellowish white, and there is little difference between the heartwood and sapwood.

Common Applications

Overseas SPF is used for frames, general millwork, boxes and crates, though it is only imported into Australia for housing construction frames.

Common Form

Sawn

Workability

SPF is easily worked, glues well, is average in paint holding ability, and takes nails and screws satisfactorily. It is not very durable and is difficult to penetrate with preservatives.

Origin of Timber

North America

Readily Available

NSW

Availability - Further Information

SPF is imported into Australia for housing construction frames only.

Availability - Further Information

Plantation

Shrinkage

Very Low Low Medium High Very High

Tangential :

Radial:

2.00%

Unit Movement Tangential:

Unit Movement Radial:

Strength Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium High

Medium

Reasonably Low

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

S6

S7

Seasoned:

SD1

SD2

SD3

SD4

SD5

SD6

SD7

SD8

Stress Grade

Structural
No. 1
Structural
No. 2
Structural
No. 3
Structural
No. 4
Structural
No. 5

Unseasoned:

Seasoned:

F11

F8

F7

F5

F4

Density per Standard

Seasoned:

500kg/m3

Unseasoned:

Joint Group

Very High

High

Reasonably High

Medium

Low

Very Low

Unseasoned:

J1

J2

J3

J4

J5

J6

Seasoned:

JD1

JD2

JD3

JD4

JD5

JD6

Colour

  White, yellow, pale straw to light brown Pink to pink brown Light to dark red Brown, chocolate, mottled or streaky
   

Mechanical Properties

Modulus of Rupture - Unseasoned:

Modulus of Rupture - Seasoned:

Modulus of Elasticity - Unseasoned:

Modulus of Elasticity - Seasoned:

Maximum Crushing Strength - Unseasoned:

Maximum Crushing Strength - Seasoned:

Impact - Unseasoned:

Impact - Seasoned:

Toughness - Unseasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Toughness - Seasoned:

Low - up to 15 Nm

Hardness - Unseasoned:

Hardness - Seasoned:

Durability

Low Moderate Reasonably High High
(0 - 5 yrs) (5 - 15 yrs) (15 - 25 yrs) (more than 25 yrs)

In-Ground:

(0 - 7 yrs) (7 - 15 yrs) (15 - 40 yrs) (More than 40 yrs)

Above ground:

(0 - 20 yrs, usually < 5) (21 - 40 yrs) (41 - 64 yrs) (More than 60 yrs)

Marine Borer Resistance:

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility:

Not Susceptible

Lyctid Borer Susceptibility - Other:

Termite Resistance:

Not Resistant

Fire Properties

Bushfire Resistance:

Not Tested

Framing

Lightweight timber construction typically comprises framed and braced structures to which one or more types of cladding are applied. Framing configurations can range from the closely spaced light timbers commonly seen in stud frame construction to large, more widely spaced timbers. A timber framed building can be placed on a concrete slab or on posts/poles or bearers resting on piers/stumps supported on pad footings.

Used in houses or multi-residential dwellings, lightweight timber construction offers the flexibility of a wide range of cost effective design options.

When the timber comes from sustainable sources, this construction method can be environmentally advantageous as it combines timber's low embodied energy with its capacity to store carbon.

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